Lathe machine is a machine tool which is used to remove metals from a workpiece to give a desired shape and size. This machine works by holding and rotating the workpiece and a tool bit is advancesd towards the workpiece which causes the cutting action. Lathe machines have various uses, some of them are metal working, wood turning,metal spinning,thermal spraying, glass working and many more.
Lathe Machines are of many types but all of them have some basic parts which are essential for its proper working.
Parts of Lathe Machine :-
It is the base of the machine . All the other parts of lathe machine are bolted on it. It is made of cast iron which is also known as semi steel. Cast iron has very high compressive strengh and good wear resistance. In very large machine , the bed may be in two or more pieces . These all pieces of beds are bolted together. These beds are large and heavy rigid body having high capacity for vibrations generated while difeerent processes of the machine.
2) Feed Box :-
Feed Box is present near the bed of the lathe machine. It is connected with two things lead screw and feed rod. Both of these can be controlled using the livers in the feed box.These two are elaborated below :-
i) Lead Screw :-
Lead Screw is long threaded rod which is connected to the feed box. It carry the carriage along with feed rod. Carriage is the part that moves the tool post to take it near or far from Chuck.
ii) Feed Rod :-
Feed rod is long cylindrical rod which is connected to feed box . Both Lead Screw and Feed Rod carry the carriage which carry the tool post.
2) Head Stock :-
It is fixed Part of Lathe Machine which is present on left side of the Bed. It is a housing for the driving pulleys and back gears. It provides bearing for the machine spindle and keep the machine spindle in alignment with the bed . Head Stock consists of a hollow spindle and drives unit like feed reverse liver, main spindle, live center cone pulley etc.
Head stock contains many parts of lathe machine which are elaborated below. The parts which are present in head stock are :-
i) Spindle :-
It is the part of lathe machine which rotates the chuck. It is present inside the head stock and rotates when engaged with gears present inside the head stock.
Chuck is used to hold and rotate the workpiece. It is bolted to the spindle . It rotates when spindle rotates. Chucks are of two types :- i) Three jaw chuck.
ii) Four jaw chuck.
i) Driving Clutch:-
It is used to engage and disengage connection between the gears and the spindle. At starting the gears and the spindle are disengaged but when the motion is required the gears and the spindle can be engaged using a driving clutch.
ii) Speed Controller :-
It is the switch in the head stock that is used to control the speed of spindle.
3) Tail Stock :-
Tail Stock is situated on the right side of bed. The main function of tail stock is to support the job when required . It is mostly used when the workpiece is long e.g a long rod. It is also used while performing drilling operation with an aid of drill chuck attachment.
The tail stock has following parts :-
i) Hand Wheel :-
The hand wheel is used to move the tail stock forward and backward as required.
ii) Ram Clamp:-
Ram Clamp is used to lock the tail stock at any position so that it doesn’t move while performing operation in lathe machine.
4) Carriage :-
It is situated between the head stock and tail stock. This is also made by cast iron.Its main function is to move the tool post horizontally and vertically.
The carriage has following parts in it which are elaborated below :-
i) Hand Traversing Wheel :-
Using the hand traversing wheel we can move the carriage to left or right i.e to move the carriage towards and away from the chuck.
ii) Screw Cutting Engage :-
Screw Cutting Engage is used to engage and disengage Carriage with Lead Screw.
iii) Cross Slide Hand Wheel :-
This hand wheel is used to move the carriage front and back int he direction perpendicular to the movement of hand traversing wheel direction.
iv) Compound Slide:-
Compound Slide supports the tool post. It can be rotated at any angle. We use Compound Slide while taper turning in lathe machine.
V) Saddle :-
This part slides along the bed way and support the cross-slide,compound rest and tool post.
It is situated on the carriage. It contains all the controls of the carriage.
5) Tool Post :-
It is top most part of the carriage . It is bolted on the carriage. It is used to hold the tool or the tool holder in correct position. In tool post single point cutting tool is fixed.
6) Legs :-
Legs are used to carry all load of the machine. It is present below the bed. It is bolted on the floor which prevents vibration.