Shaper Machine – Parts and Working
As the name suggests, the Shaper Machine is used to give different shapes to the workpiece.
Shaper Machine is commonly used to produce flat surfaces, grooves, slots, etc.
In shaper machine, a single point cutting tool is used which reciprocates and rubs the workpiece and removes unwanted metal from the workpiece in the form of chips.
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Parts of Shaper Machine:-
The main parts of the Shaper machine are:-
As the name suggests, it is the base of the shaper machine. All other parts of the machine are present over this base. The base is made with cast iron which is capable of taking all compressive loads by different parts of the machine. The shock absorbing capacity of the base is high.
Column is present above the base and is attached to the base. It is also made of cast iron and is box-like in shape.
The column act as a cover to the drive mechanism components like gear arrangements, pulleys, etc and also supports the reciprocating ram and the worktable.
Two guideways are provided on the top and side of the column. The ram reciprocates on one guideway which is present at the top of the column and the table move up and down in the other guideway which is present at the side of the column.
iv) Table Support:
Table sliding support is present near the base in front of the table which supports the table while sliding up and down in the guideway of the column.
Table is a metal body which slides up and down on the guideway of the column.
Main function of the table is to hold the workpiece and vice is placed over this table. This table is in the shape of a box and T-slots are cut on the table such that any machine vice can be fitted on that T-slot and can be fitted in it properly.
Vice is present over the table and is used to hold or clamp the workpiece properly.
the vice has two jaws, one is movable and another is fixed. As one of the jaws is movable, so workpiece of different sizes can be clamped in between the two jaws.
Ram is the main part of the shaper machine. Ram is made with cast iron and slide left and right in the guideway of the column. It holds the tool and provides reciprocating motion to it.
In the crank driven machine, Ram is connected with the rocker arm which provide motion to the Ram.
In the hydraulic driven machine, Ram is connected with the hydraulic housing which provides motion to the Ram.
Single point cutting tool is used as a tool in the shaper machine which is most commonly made of highspeed steel or sometimes high carbon steel.
vii)Tool Head or Vertical Slide:-
It can move up and down with the help of a handle. Also, it can be rotated to any angle. The handle of the tool head is called tool feed handle.
viii) Clapper Box:-
Clapper Box helps the tool to fit inside the Tool Post. The main function of the clapper box is to provide clearance for tool in return stroke.
It also prevents the cutting edge dragging on the workpiece in the return stock and prevent tool wear.
ix) Ram Clamp:-
Ram Clamp is used to set the position of the ram.
X) Tool Post:
Tool Post is used to hold the tool properly and
There are two types of traversing wheel in Shaper Machine. They are:-
i) Hand Traversing Wheel:-
Hand traversing wheel is used to move the table up and down.
ii) Cross Feed Handle:-
Cross Feed Handle is used to feed the tool in forward and backward direction. While the hand traversing wheel helps to move the table up and down, cross feed handle helps the table to move in cross direction.
Working of Shaper Machine:
- At first, the job or workpiece is set on the working table with help of two vices, one of which is movable.
- The cutting tool is mounted on the tool post which is present on the ram. The cutting tool used in shaper tool is single point cutting tool.
- Now the motor is started and this motor is used to create reciprocating motion in ram by quick return mechanism also known as crank and lever mechanism.
- When the ram reciprocates, the tool post and the cutting tool mounted on it also reciprocates.
- As the cutting tool resiprocates, the tool comes in contact with the metal and remove unwanted metal from it. Metal is removed either in forward stroke or the backward stroke and no metal is cut during the other stroke and this stroke is known as idle stroke.
- The cutting stroke is carried out at low speed and the return stroke is carried at high speed.
- Clapper box is used to create a clearance between the tool and the workpiece in the idle stroke.